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Added: Lucrecia Stamm - Date: 30.04.2022 14:15 - Views: 19371 - Clicks: 9958

What is female genital mutilation FGM? How many women and girls are affected? How does FGM affect the health of women and girls? What are the consequences for childbirth? What are the psychological effects of FGM? What are the different types of FGM? Which types are most common? Why are there different terms to describe FGM, such as female genital cutting and female circumcision? Where does the practice come from? At what age is FGM performed? Where is FGM practiced? Who performs FGM? What instruments are used to perform FGM? Why is FGM performed? Is FGM required by certain religions?

Since FGM is part of a cultural tradition, can it still be condemned? Does anyone have the right to interfere in age-old cultural traditions such as FGM? What is the link between FGM and ethnicity? In which countries is FGM banned by law? Which international and regional instruments can be referenced for the elimination of FGM?

FGM refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or other non-medical reasons. An estimated million girls and women alive today are believed to have been subjected to FGM; but rates of FGM are increasing, a reflection of global population growth.

If FGM practices continue at recent levels, 68 million girls will be cut between and in 25 countries where FGM is routinely practiced and more recent data are available. A key challenge is not only protecting girls who are currently at risk but also ensuring that those to be born in the future will be free from the dangers of the practice.

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This is especially important considering that FGM-concentrated countries are generally experiencing high population growth and have large youth populations. Inan estimated 4. This of girls cut each year is projected to rise to 4. FGM has serious implications for the sexual and reproductive health of girls and women.

Complications may occur in all types of FGM, but are most frequent with infibulation. Immediate complications include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage, tetanus or infection, urine retention, ulceration of the genital region and injury to adjacent tissue, wound infection, urinary infection, fever, and septicemia. Haemorrhage and infection can be severe enough to cause death.

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Long-term consequences include complications during childbirthanaemia, the formation of cysts and abscesses, keloid scar formation, damage to the urethra resulting in urinary incontinence, dyspareunia painful sexual intercoursesexual dysfunction, hypersensitivity of the genital area and increased risk of HIV transmissionas well as psychological effects. Infibulation, or type III FGM, may cause complete vaginal obstruction resulting in the Any ladies want to go to old une of menstrual flow in the vagina and uterus.

Infibulation creates a physical barrier to sexual intercourse and childbirth. An infibulated woman therefore has to undergo gradual dilation of the vaginal opening before sexual intercourse can take place. Often, infibulated women are cut open on the first night of marriage by the husband or a circumciser to enable the husband to be intimate with his wife. At childbirth, many women also have to be cut again because the vaginal opening is too small to allow for the passage of a baby.

Infibulation is also linked to menstrual and urination disorders, recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, fistulae and infertility. A recent study found that, compared with women who had not been subjected to FGM, those who had undergone FGM faced a ificantly greater risk of requiring a Caesarean section, an episiotomy and an extended hospital stay, and also of suffering post-partum haemorrhage.

Women who have undergone infibulation are more likely to suffer from prolonged and obstructed labour, sometimes resulting in foetal death and obstetric fistula. The infants of mothers who have undergone more extensive forms of FGM are at an increased risk of dying at birth. Two high-FGM-prevalence countries are among the four countries with the highest s of maternal death globally. Five of the high-prevalence countries have maternal mortality ratios of perlive births and above.

When one tool is used to cut several girls, as is often the case in communities where large groups of girls are cut on the same day during a socio-cultural rite, there is a risk of HIV transmission. Additionally, due to damage to the female sexual organs, sexual intercourse can result in the laceration of tissue, which greatly increases risk of HIV transmission.

The same is true for the blood loss that accompanies childbirth. The psychological stress of the procedure may trigger behavioural disturbances in children, closely linked to loss of trust and confidence in caregivers. In the longer term, women may suffer feelings of anxiety and depression. Sexual dysfunction may also contribute to marital conflicts or divorce. Type IIalso called excision: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora.

The amount of tissue that is removed varies widely from community to community. Type IIIalso called infibulation: Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with a covering seal. This can take place with or without removal of the clitoris. Type IV: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping or cauterization.

Incision refers to making cuts in the clitoris or cutting free the clitoral prepuce, but it also relates to incisions made in the vaginal wall and to incision of the perineum and the symphysis.

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Deinfibulation refers to the practice of cutting open a woman who has been infibulated to allow intercourse or to facilitate childbirth. Reinfibulation is the practice of sewing the external labia back together after deinfibulation.

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Types I and II are the most common, but there is variation among countries. Type III — infibulation — is experienced by about 10 per cent of all affected women and is most likely to occur in Somalia, northern Sudan and Djibouti. Adding to the confusion is the fact that health experts in many Eastern and Southern African countries encourage male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission; FGM, on the other hand, can increase the risk of HIV transmission.

It is also sometimes argued that the term obscures the serious physical and psychological effects of genital cutting on women. It establishes a clear distinction from male circumcision. This expression gained support in the late s, and sinceit has been used in several United Nations conference documents and has served as a policy and advocacy tool. Today, a greater of countries have outlawed the practice, and an increasing of communities have committed to abandon it, indicating that the social and cultural perceptions of the practice are being challenged by communities themselves, along with national, regional and international decision-makers.

Therefore, it is time to accelerate the momentum towards full abandonment of the practice by emphasizing the human-rights aspect of the issue. The origins of the practice are unclear. It predates the rise of Christianity and Islam. It is said some Egyptian mummies display characteristics of FGM.

Historians such as Herodotus claim that, in the fifth century BC, the Phoenicians, the Hittites and the Ethiopians practiced circumcision. It is Any ladies want to go to old une reported that circumcision rites were practiced in tropical zones of Africa, in the Philippines, by certain tribes in the Upper Amazon, by women of the Arunta tribe in Australia, and by certain early Romans and Arabs.

As recent as the s, clitoridectomy was practiced in Western Europe and the United States to treat perceived ailments including hysteria, epilepsy, mental disorders, masturbation, nymphomania and melancholia. In other words, the practice of FGM has been followed by many different peoples and societies across the ages and continents. It varies. In some areas, FGM is carried out during infancy — as early as a couple of days after birth. In others, it takes place during childhood, at the time of marriage, during a woman's first pregnancy or after the birth of her first.

Recent reports suggest that the age has been dropping in some areas, with most FGM carried out on girls between the ages of 0 and 15 years. And in many western countries, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, the United Kingdom and various European countries, FGM is practiced among diaspora populations from areas where the practice is common.

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FGM is usually carried out by elderly people in the community usually, but not exclusively, women deated to perform this task or by traditional birth attendants. Among certain populations, FGM may be carried out by traditional health practitioners, male barbers, members of secret societies, herbalists or sometimes a female relative. In some cases, medical professionals perform FGM. In some countries, this can reach as high as three in four girls. FGM is carried out with special knives, scissors, scalpels, pieces of glass or razor blades. Anaesthetic and antiseptics are generally not used unless the procedure is carried out by medical practitioners.

In communities where infibulations is practiced, girls' legs are often bound together to immobilize them for days, allowing the formation of scar tissue. In every society in which it is practiced, female genital mutilation is a manifestation of deeply entrenched gender inequality. Where it is widely practiced, FGM is supported by both men and women, usually without question, and anyone that does not follow the norm may Any ladies want to go to old une condemnation, harassment and ostracism.

It may be difficult for families to abandon the practice without support from the wider community. In fact, it is often practiced even when it is known to inflict harm upon girls because the perceived social benefits of the practice are deemed higher than its disadvantages. It is thought to ensure virginity before marriage and fidelity afterward, and to increase male sexual pleasure. Sometimes myths about female genitalia e.

Hygiene and aesthetic reasons: In some communities, the external female genitalia are considered dirty and ugly and are removed, ostensibly to promote hygiene and aesthetic appeal. Religious reasons: Although FGM is not endorsed by either Islam or by Christianity, supposed religious doctrine is often used to justify the practice. Socio-economic factors: In many communities, FGM is a prerequisite for marriage. Where women are largely dependent on men, economic necessity can be a major driver of the procedure.

FGM sometimes is a prerequisite for the right to inherit. It may also be a major income source for practitioners. No religion promotes or condones FGM. Still, more than half of girls and women in four out of 14 countries where data is available saw FGM as a religious requirement. And although FGM is often perceived as being connected to Islam, perhaps because it is practiced among many Muslim groups, not all Islamic groups practice FGM, and many non-Islamic groups do, including some Christians, Ethiopian Jews, and followers of certain traditional African religions.

FGM is thus a cultural rather than a religious practice. In fact, many religious leaders have denounced it. Culture and tradition provide a framework for human well-being, and cultural arguments cannot be used to condone violence against people, male or female.

Moreover, culture is not static, but constantly changing and adapting. Nevertheless, activities for the elimination of FGM should be developed and implemented in a way that is sensitive to the cultural and social background of the communities that practice it. Behaviour can change when people understand the hazards of certain practices and when they realize that it is possible to give up harmful practices without giving up meaningful aspects of their culture.

Every child has the right to be protected from harm, in all settings and at all times. The movement to end FGM — often local in origin — is intended to protect girls from profound, permanent and completely unnecessary harm. The evidence shows that most people in affected countries want to stop cutting girls, and that overall support for FGM is declining even in countries where the practice is almost universal such as Egypt and Sudan. Ending FGM will take intensive and sustained collaboration from all parts of society, including families and communities, religious and other leaders, the media, governments and the international community.

Ethnicity is the most ificant factor in FGM prevalence, cutting across socio-economic class and level of education. Members of certain ethnic groups often adhere to the same social norms, including whether or not to practice FGM, regardless of where they live.

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